Autogenerated Content: Google understandably hates autogenerated content. Adding or removing entire sections is more significant than switching around the order of a few words or fixing a typo. Align, Disambiguate and Walk: A Unified Approach for Measuring Semantic Similarity. So by continually sharing great content with strong captions and niche hashtags, you’re already contributing towards your Explore page ranking. In this case, the above two computations using D {\displaystyle \mathbf {E} \mathbf {R} =\mathbf {1} } 155. ^ Example of code calling the rank function defined above: This example takes ≈13 iterations to converge. j Google review count and review score factor into local search ranking. i However, it's important to remember there are hundreds of other ranking factors. , 10. Their PageRank scores are therefore divided evenly among all other pages. [39] One algorithm takes Meta Tag Spamming: Keyword stuffing can also happen in meta tags. The outcomes with the higher PageRank will therefore enter the human consciousness to a larger extent. Fred: A nickname given to a series of Google updates starting in 2017. 1 This creates a social aspect where everything can be discussed and collected to provoke thinking. 102. Keyword Appears in Top Level Domain: Having a keyword in your domain name doesn’t give you the SEO boost that it used to. Link Location In Content: Links in the beginning of a piece of content may carry slightly more weight than links placed at the end of the content. {\displaystyle {1-d \over 1+d}\|Y-D\|_{1}\leq \|R-D\|_{1}\leq \|Y-D\|_{1},}. Internal Link Anchor Text: Internal link anchor text is another relevancy signal. and 141. [67], PageRank has been used to rank spaces or streets to predict how many people (pedestrians or vehicles) come to the individual spaces or streets. ; Negative Link Velocity: On the flip side, a negative link velocity can significantly reduce rankings as it’s a signal of decreasing popularity. [13] RankDex, the first search engine with page-ranking and site-scoring algorithms, was launched in 1996. 68. 82. Assume a small universe of four web pages: A, B, C, and D. Links from a page to itself are ignored. It can also helps Googlebot access and index all of your site’s pages. While controversial, many in SEO think that a well-coded page is used as a quality signal. It's more important now than ever to increase your site's page speed. ( 142. According to Matt Cutts, Google is concerned about webmasters who try to game the system, and thereby reduce the quality and relevance of Google search results. As an example, people could previously create many message-board posts with links to their website to artificially inflate their PageRank. Rel=Canonical: When used properly, use of this tag may prevent Google from penalizing your site for duplicate content. [55], A similar new use of PageRank is to rank academic doctoral programs based on their records of placing their graduates in faculty positions. 119. In this case, the user clicks on other search results in an attempt to find the answer to their query. Domain Diversity: The so-called “Bigfoot Update” supposedly added more domains to each SERP page. 52. p is the reset probability ( In March 2016 Google announced it would no longer support this feature, and the underlying API would soon cease to operate.[40]. Affiliate Sites: It’s no secret that Google isn’t the biggest fan of affiliates. Domain Age: In this video, Google’s Matt Cutts states that: “The difference between a domain that’s six months old versus one year old is really not that big at all.”. Unnatural Link Spike: A 2013 Google Patent describes how Google can identify whether or not an influx of links to a page is legitimate. 101. However, Google has denied that they use external links as a ranking signal. The name of the actual ranking function is BM25. Redirects: Sneaky redirects is a big no-no. is the set of pages that link to Links From Competitors: Links from other pages ranking in the same SERP may be more valuable to a page’s ranking for that particular keyword. 152. ) 207. When given a multiple-term query, ( Google Directory was closed on July 20, 2011.[45]. [15] He later used it when he founded Baidu in China in 2000. Link Profile with High % of Low Quality Links: Lots of links from sources commonly used by black hat SEOs (like blog comments and forum profiles) may be a sign of gaming the system. Because of the large eigengap of the modified adjacency matrix above,[30] the values of the PageRank eigenvector can be approximated to within a high degree of accuracy within only a few iterations. Site Usability: A site that’s difficult to use or to navigate can hurt rankings indirectly by reducing time on site, pages viewed and bounce rate (in other words, RankBrain ranking factors). Image Optimization: Images send search engines important relevancy signals through their file name, alt text, title, description and caption. 150. Encouraging your team to share your content with their networks on Facebook instantly amplifies your reach. The PageRank of an undirected graph 54. K 36. Content Length: Content with more words can cover a wider breadth and are likely preferable in the algorithm compared to shorter, superficial articles. 161. URL Length: Excessively long URLs may hurt a page’s search engine visibility. p ) ϵ Natural Link Profile: A site with a “natural” link profile is going to rank highly and be more durable to updates than one that has obviously used black hat strategies to build links. is the expectation of the number of clicks (or random jumps) required to get from the page back to itself. [53][54], In any ecosystem, a modified version of PageRank may be used to determine species that are essential to the continuing health of the environment. is the number of outbound links on page is the PageRank vector defined above, and 2 They possess a higher potential to attract a user's attention as their location increases the attention economy attached to the site. 69. The Google Quality Guidelines states that reviewers should keep an eye out for sources when looking at certain pages: “This is a topic where expertise and/or authoritative sources are important…”. Googler Matt Cutts is quoted as stating: “…When I checked the whois on them, they all had “whois privacy protection service” on them. Google wants to improve users’ experience of the web, and fast-loading web pages will do that. 167. R Finally, if [46] As links from higher-PR pages are believed to be more valuable, they tend to be more expensive. 78. URL Path: A page closer to the homepage may get a slight authority boost vs. pages buried deep down in a site’s architecture. IP Address Flagged as Spam: If your server’s IP address is flagged for spam, it may affect all sites on that server. In fact, Google used to give you reading level stats: But what they do with that information is up for debate. {\displaystyle Q=\{q1,q2,\cdots \}} Page speed has been cited as one of the leading SEO ranking factors for years. Chrome Bookmarks: We know that Google collects Chrome browser usage data. Temporary Link Schemes: Google has caught onto people that create — and quickly remove — spammy links. 190. Pogosticking: “Pogosticking” is a special type of bounce. p 19. However, I did notice a problem: For videos with really small subscriber counts, the score would get heavily amplified and surface to the top. ( Useful Content: As pointed out by Backlinko reader Jared Carrizales, Google may distinguish between “quality” and “useful” content. In fact, Google now penalizes websites that aren’t mobile friendly. may carry the penalty over to the new owner, content length correlated with SERP position, LSI keywords help search engines extract meaning, the mobile version of the Google News Carousel, is correlated to first page Google rankings, now-public Google Rater Guidelines Document, may distinguish between “quality” and “useful” content, helps Google thematically organize your content, YouTube.com traffic increased significantly after Google Panda, helps tell Google what that page is about, influence search results for later searches, likely looks at non-hyperlinked brand mentions, can increase the odds of a manual penalty. [59], Swiftype's site search product builds a "PageRank that’s specific to individual websites" by looking at each website's signals of importance and prioritizing content based on factors such as number of links from the home page.[60]. [5] In practice, the PageRank concept may be vulnerable to manipulation. {\displaystyle O(\log n/\epsilon )} Important pages receive a higher PageRank and are more likely to appear at the top of the search results. In sport the PageRank algorithm has been used to rank the performance of: teams in the National Football League (NFL) in the USA;[65] individual soccer players;[66] and athletes in the Diamond League. {\displaystyle \mathbf {R} } Keyword in Description Tag: Google doesn’t use the meta description tag as a direct ranking signal. The least showed a PageRank of 0. 13. “Sponsored” or “UGC” Tags: Links tagged as “rel=sponsored” or “rel=UGC” are treated differently than normal “followed” or rel=nofollow links. This residual probability, d, is usually set to 0.85, estimated from the frequency that an average surfer uses his or her browser's bookmark feature. Unlinked Brand Mentions: Brands get mentioned without getting linked to. The PageRank of these sites allow them to be trusted and they are able to parlay this trust into increased business. Diversity of Link Types: Having an unnaturally large percentage of your links coming from a single source (ie. They also present a faster algorithm that takes 70. Brand Name Anchor Text: Branded anchor text is a simple — but strong — brand signal. is an initial probability distribution. does not link to 98. Google's founders cite Garfield, Marchiori, and Kleinberg in their original papers.[5][28]. Schema.org Usage: Pages that support microformats may rank above pages without it. [16][17] Google founder Larry Page referenced Li's work as a citation in some of his U.S. patents for PageRank. 43. The new page experience signals combine Core Web Vitals with our existing search signals including mobile-friendliness, safe-browsing, HTTPS-security, and intrusive interstitial guidelines. ( Some say that a basic reading level will help you rank better because it will appeal to the masses. ϵ , and M If a page has no links to other pages, it becomes a sink and therefore terminates the random surfing process. Links from .edu or .gov Domains: Matt Cutts has stated that TLD doesn’t factor into a site’s importance. ∞ Brand Mentions on Top Stories: Really big brands get mentioned on Top Stories sites all the time. . E 113. {\displaystyle L(p_{j})} Authority of Linking Page: The authority (PageRank) of the referring page has been an extremely important ranking factor since Google’s early days and still is. Quality of Internal Links Pointing to Page: Internal links from authoritative pages on domain have a stronger effect than pages with no or low PageRank. That said, internal links likely have much less weight than anchor text coming from external sites. But also said that in the same video, “…if it’s critical content it should be visible…”. This leads to considering bipartite graphs. However, the patent is assigned to Stanford University and not to Google. In the current case. 50. is statistically close to the degree distribution of the graph With attention economy, value is placed on products that receive a greater amount of human attention and the results at the top of the PageRank garner a larger amount of focus then those on subsequent pages. 90. where I tested ranking based solely on the view-to-subscriber ratio (ie. [80] Google will still be using PageRank score when determining how to rank content in search results. 145. Excess PageRank Sculpting: Going too far with PageRank sculpting — by nofollowing all outbound links — may be a sign of gaming the system. With this location they can receive more traffic and their online marketplace will have more purchases. ) This method of avoidance, however, also has various drawbacks, such as reducing the link value of legitimate comments. These ideas can influence decision-making and the actions of the viewer have a direct relation to the PageRank. Either way, it can hurt your site’s ranking. where Content Recency: Google Caffeine update favors recently published or updated content, especially for time-sensitive searches. SSL Certificate: Google has confirmed that use HTTPS as a ranking signal. 53. R Reciprocal Links: Google’s Link Schemes page lists “Excessive link exchanging” as a link scheme to avoid. q Penguin Penalty: Sites that were hit by Google Penguin are significantly less visible in search. Affiliate Links: Affiliate links themselves probably won’t hurt your rankings. N HTML errors/W3C validation: Lots of HTML errors or sloppy coding may be a sign of a poor quality site. “Hidden” Content on Mobile: Hidden content on mobile devices may not get indexed (or may not be weighed as heavily) vs. fully visible content. 75. It's even used for systems analysis of road networks, as well as biology, chemistry, neuroscience, and physics. Use of Google Analytics and Google Search Console: Some think that having these two programs installed on your site can improve your page’s indexing. 136. i However, Matt Cutts says that a 301s are similar to direct links. Panda Penalty: Sites with low-quality content (particularly content farms) are less visible in search after getting hit by a Panda penalty. With the nofollow value, message-board administrators can modify their code to automatically insert "rel='nofollow'" to all hyperlinks in posts, thus preventing PageRank from being affected by those particular posts. A new page, even a very good one, will not have many links unless it is part of an existing site (a site being a densely connected set of pages, such as Wikipedia). When I looked at the results, some of them looked promising. [75], Google now using UGC rel attribute of HTML that stands for User Generated Content, and the ugc attribute value is recommended for links within user generated content, such as comments and forum posts. Thus, PageRank is now regularly used in bibliometrics, social and information network analysis, and for link prediction and recommendation. 99. TF-IDF: A fancy way of saying: “How often does a certain word appear in a document?”. A Google rep recently called this a “a very small ranking factor“. Known Authorship: In February 2013, Google CEO Eric Schmidt famously claimed: “Within search results, information tied to verified online profiles will be ranked higher than content without such verification, which will result in most users naturally clicking on the top (verified) results.”. 201. That way, they can measure how quickly a page actually loads to users. User Friendly Layout: Citing the Google Quality Guidelines Document yet again: “The page layout on highest quality pages makes the Main Content immediately visible.”. Links from “Hub” Pages: The Hilltop Algorithm suggests that getting links from pages that are considered top resources (or hubs) on a certain topic are given special treatment. R Authority of Linking Domain: The referring domain’s authority may play an independent role in a link’s value. [24][25] The word is a trademark of Google, and the PageRank process has been patented (U.S. Patent 6,285,999). If so, Google may give you a rankings boost when people search for the non-branded version of that keyword in Google. 1. In fact, Googler John Mueller states: “These heading tags in HTML help us to understand the structure of the page.”. Domain Trust/TrustRank: Many SEOs believe that “TrustRank” is a massively important ranking factor. ) However, Google recently stated that HTML sitemaps aren’t “useful” for SEO. i.e. Google advises webmasters to use the nofollow HTML attribute value on sponsored links. ) , the surfer selects a j [22] The system was developed with the help of Scott Hassan and Alan Steremberg, both of whom were cited by Page and Brin as being critical to the development of Google. Increasingly, Instagram wants people to spend time on the app because we enjoy it in a meaningful way, not just because we can’t stop scrolling. DMCA Complaints: Google “downranks” pages with legitimate DMCA complaints. [26][27], PageRank was influenced by citation analysis, early developed by Eugene Garfield in the 1950s at the University of Pennsylvania, and by Hyper Search, developed by Massimo Marchiori at the University of Padua. Direct Traffic: It’s confirmed that Google uses data from Google Chrome to determine how many people visit site (and how often). This makes PageRank a particularly elegant metric: the eigenvector is, where the adjacency function Highlighting this factor’s importance, Google shows the date of a page’s last update for certain pages: 31. is defined as. Google uses a combination of webpage and website authority to determine the overall authority of a webpage competing for a keyword. 111. 185. 140. In the original form of PageRank, the sum of PageRank over all pages was the total number of pages on the web at that time, so each page in this example would have an initial value of 1. Human Editors: Although never confirmed, Google has filed a patent for a system that allows human editors to influence the SERPs. In the past, the PageRank shown in the Toolbar was easily manipulated. Penalized WhoIs Owner: If Google identifies a particular person as a spammer it makes sense that they would scrutinize other sites owned by that person. Google likely looks at non-hyperlinked brand mentions as a brand signal. [43], After the introduction of Google Places into the mainstream organic SERP, numerous other factors in addition to PageRank affect ranking a business in Local Business Results. ) 83. 143. 204. Keyword Appears in H1 Tag: H1 tags are a “second title tag”. [44], The Google Directory PageRank was an 8-unit measurement. Links From Unrelated Websites: A high-percentage of backlinks from topically-unrelated sites can increase the odds of a manual penalty. 87. 41. t A 0-10 approximation of PageRank called "Toolbar Pagerank" was once available for the verified site maintainers through the Google Webmaster Tools interface. [58], Personalized PageRank is used by Twitter to present users with other accounts they may wish to follow. d Domain History: A site with volatile ownership or several drops may tell Google to “reset” the site’s history, negating links pointing to the domain. Several strategies have been proposed to accelerate the computation of PageRank.[31]. And a Google Patent titled “Search result ranking based on trust”, seems to back this up. Local Searches: For local searches, Google often places local results above the “normal” organic SERPs. In fact, Google’s recent “How Search Works” report states: “We look for sites that many users seem to value for similar queries.”. ( N . {\displaystyle {\mathcal {M}}} If so, that page may get a rankings boost for that keyword. The basic mathematical operations performed are identical. The PageRank computations require several passes, called "iterations", through the collection to adjust approximate PageRank values to more closely reflect the theoretical true value. The SERP rank of a web page refers to the placement of the corresponding link on the SERP, where higher placement means higher SERP rank. [52], For the analysis of protein networks in biology PageRank is also a useful tool. the PageRank value for a page u is dependent on the PageRank values for each page v contained in the set Bu (the set containing all pages linking to page u), divided by the number L(v) of links from page v. The PageRank theory holds that an imaginary surfer who is randomly clicking on links will eventually stop clicking. In fact, Google filed a patent for determining whether or not social media accounts were real or fake. Google had declared their intention to remove the PageRank score from the Google toolbar several months earlier. i {\displaystyle {\widehat {\mathcal {M}}}} 130. {\displaystyle \epsilon }, —For For example, if you have a page about cars that links to movie-related pages, this may tell Google that your page is about the movie Cars, not the automobile. ϵ q You might already know that Google uses over 200 ranking factors in their algorithm…. According to Google, however, HTTPS only acts as a “tiebreaker“. Authority of Linking Domain: The referring domain’s authority may play an independent role in a link’s value. O Site Uptime: Lots of downtime from site maintenance or server issues may hurt your rankings (and can even result in deindexing if not corrected). n RankBrain: RankBrain is Google’s AI algorithm. The search engine results page (SERP) is the actual result returned by a search engine in response to a keyword query. 42. d Safe Search: Search results with curse words or adult content won’t appear for people with Safe Search turned on. 138. 44. In October 2014 Matt Cutts announced that another visible pagerank update would not be coming. P 112. 116. [21] Sergey Brin had the idea that information on the web could be ordered in a hierarchy by "link popularity": a page ranks higher as there are more links to it. adjacency matrix where M_i,j represents the link from 'j' to 'i', such that for all 'j'. 88. Make sure that your contact information matches your whois info. Or, in certain cases, a penalized domain may carry the penalty over to the new owner. 22. i Y forum profiles, blog comments) may be a sign of webspam. Interstitial Popups: Google may penalize sites that display full page “interstitial” popups to mobile users. where The mathematics of PageRank are entirely general and apply to any graph or network in any domain. Links from the Same Class C IP: Getting an unnatural amount of links from sites on the same server IP may help Google determine that your links are coming from a blog network. 16. 156. Google’s 200 Ranking Factors: The Complete List (2021). According to a Google Patent, this may be a way for them to determine whether or not a site is trying to game the algorithm. Reconsideration Request: A successful reconsideration request can lift a penalty. They likely use brand and user-interaction signals to distinguish between the two. The damping factor is subtracted from 1 (and in some variations of the algorithm, the result is divided by the number of documents (N) in the collection) and this term is then added to the product of the damping factor and the sum of the incoming PageRank scores. R However, it’s likely that Google is able to identify and filter out followed links from ads. E 186. A probability is expressed as a numeric value between 0 and 1. Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below. [34] Well, you’re in for a treat because I’ve put together a complete list. 154. M This usually precedes a ranking drop, although not 100% of the time. One of the early working papers[61] that were used in the creation of Google is Efficient crawling through URL ordering,[62] which discusses the use of a number of different importance metrics to determine how deeply, and how much of a site Google will crawl. The SERP consists of a list of links to web pages with associated text snippets. 56. Bullets and Numbered Lists: Bullets and numbered lists help break up your content for readers, making them more user friendly. Spoofing can generally be detected by performing a Google search for a source URL; if the URL of an entirely different site is displayed in the results, the latter URL may represent the destination of a redirection. ) User reviews/Site reputation: A site’s reputation on sites like Yelp.com likely play an important role in Google’s algorithm. Google recalculates PageRank scores each time it crawls the Web and rebuilds its index. The PageRank may also be used as a methodology to measure the apparent impact of a community like the Blogosphere on the overall Web itself. Those unnatural links may become devalued. p {\displaystyle \mathbf {P} } Query Deserves Freshness: Google gives newer pages a boost for certain searches. x Contextual Links: Links embedded inside a page’s content are considered more powerful than links on an empty page or found elsewhere on the page. Branded Searches: People search for brands. The goal is to find an effective means of ignoring links from documents with falsely influenced PageRank. More complex variants can be built on top of SD2, such as adding specialist proxies and direct votes for specific issues, but SD2 as the underlying umbrella system, mandates that generalist proxies should always be used. Mobile Usability: Websites that mobile users can easily use may have an edge in Google’s “Mobile-first Index”. Page Loading Speed via Chrome: Google also uses Chrome user data to get a better handle on a page’s loading time. Image Results: Google images sometimes appear in the normal, organic search results. {\displaystyle \log n} Multimedia: Images, videos and other multimedia elements may act as a content quality signal. But going overboard can hurt you. [5] Shortly after, Page and Brin founded Google Inc., the company behind the Google search engine. {\displaystyle 1-\epsilon } User Generated Content Links: Google can identify UGC vs. content published by the actual site owner. Since December 2007, when it started actively penalizing sites selling paid text links, Google has combatted link farms and other schemes designed to artificially inflate PageRank. But if you have too many, Google’s algorithm may pay closer attention to other quality signals to make sure you’re not a “thin affiliate site“. Official Linkedin Company Page: Most real businesses have company Linkedin pages. What’s happening here? 95. 71. “Poison” Anchor Text: Having “poison” anchor text (especially pharmacy keywords) pointed to your site may be a sign of spam or a hacked site. Site Has Facebook Page and Likes: Brands tend to have Facebook pages with lots of likes. M As a result of Markov theory, it can be shown that the PageRank of a page is the probability of arriving at that page after a large number of clicks. # of Links from Separate C-Class IPs: Links from separate class-c IP addresses suggest a wider breadth of sites linking to you, which can help with rankings. Page’s PageRank: Not perfectly correlated. 144. The solution exists and is unique for [5] Rajeev Motwani and Terry Winograd co-authored with Page and Brin the first paper about the project, describing PageRank and the initial prototype of the Google search engine, published in 1998. 14. Keyword in Title Tag: Although not as important as it once was, your title tag remains an important on-page SEO signal. 163. 96. Domain Authority: All things being equal, a page on an authoritative domain will rank higher than a page on a domain with less authority. However, a Googler recently stated that hidden content is OK. , where n is the size of the network. Accordingly, the algorithm bumps up posts from accounts that a user already interacts with. 37. 176. The TrueSkill ranking system is a skill based ranking system for Xbox Live developed at Microsoft Research.The purpose of a ranking system is to both identify and track the skills of gamers in a game (mode) in order to be able to match them into competitive matches. log denotes the adjacency matrix of the graph and ; {\displaystyle \ell (p_{i},p_{j})} Links from Real Sites vs. “Splogs”: Due to the proliferation of blog networks, Google probably gives more weight to links coming from “real sites” than from fake blogs. Google offers for website authority Google uses to determine the overall authority of Linking domain Age: to... 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