Misconception of Middle Eastern Culture and Religion | Melika Rahmani | TEDxJMU Melika is a student at James Madison University. According to medical historians, however, prophetic medicine was actually a syncretic blend of biblical Jewish medicine as contained in the Book of Leviticus ; Persian medicine as taught in the famous medical school of Gondeshapur, which was attended by several of the Prophet's relatives; nomadic Bedouin medicine as practiced in Arabia (particularly in Medina and Mecca) during the Prophet's lifetime; and Hippocratic-Galenic yunāni medicine from Greece. Thus, many of the Thus, many of the nurses included in the studies took time out of work to pray every day . The exodus of Christians from the Middle East is real and tragic. There are several characteristics of culture impacting the interactions between Middle Eastern and Western peoples. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In The Evil Eye: A Casebook, edited by Alan Dundes, pp. Even though saint worship has always been frowned upon as shirk, or polytheism, by more scripturally minded, orthodox Muslims (Doumato, 2000), belief in the miraculous barakah of saints, the formation of cults involved in the veneration of such saints, and the subsequent movement of thousands of miracle-seeking pilgrims to and from saints' shrines are considered to be among the major hallmarks of North African Islam. Throughout the Middle East the most pervasive amulet is the so-called hand of Fatima, a down-turned, stylized, five-fingered hand often made of silver or blue pottery (or both) and often incorporating Qurʾanic verses or representations of a human eye. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. By the sixteenth-century, cults of popular Islamic mystics, known as Ṣūfīs or marabouts, began to proliferate in the countries of North Africa. Islamic Medicine. Technologies such as coronary bypass surgery, organ transplantation services, and the latest forms of in vitro fertilization are widely available in urban centers. Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Providing culturally and linguistically competent care and education for their patients can be a challenge for home care and hospice clinicians, particularly those without access to the resources of a hospital library. ••• It is not surprising, therefore, that previous traditions live on—not as organized medical systems per se, but rather as numerous syncretic healing philosophies characterized by a multifaceted array of etiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic beliefs and practices regarding the nature of health and illness and the treatment of various forms of sickness. Amulets may also be store-bought, such as small charms made of gold, silver, or other metals, or they may be made of brightly colored pieces of cloth, sometimes adorned with shiny metallic coins. Nonetheless, prophetic medicine acquired great significance during later Islamic history and, in some cases, came to counter and supersede the then powerful yunāni medical system, which was suspected as being a science of heathen origin. 84 0 obj It is fair to conclude that Islam—at least in its more populist form—has always been a major influence on the healing practices, pilgrimages, and rituals that continue, unabated, among the poorer urban and rural communities in the Middle East in the early twenty-first century. Gran, Peter. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. Mind-body-spirit integration. Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. How This Impacts Care •Patient brings 1 or 2 additional people to visit who listen carefully for patient and may answer for patient. The "evil of an envier" is mentioned directly in the Qurʾān, but the belief in evil eye predates Islam, appearing in both the Bible and in Sumerian texts as early as five thousand years ago (Dundes, 1992). Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. "The Rise of Female Healers in the Middle Atlas, Morocco." Extended Abstract: Constituting only a small fraction of immigrants living in the U.S., Arab/ Middle Eastern immigrants have been overshadowed in the academic literature on migration, health and religion by other immigrant groups such as Latino and Asian immigrants. If you’re interested in this area of the world, you’ll want to know the heads of state in the region, acronyms people use in the Middle East, and some basic Islamic terms, because many — although by no means most — of the world’s Muslims reside here. Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach. 2. Encyclopedia of Religion. To counter these various etiological possibilities, lower-class infertile women often undertake relentless "quests for conception," in which they engage simultaneously in arduous ethnomedical and biomedical therapeutic rituals (Inhorn, 1994a). Social Science and Medicine 13B (1979): 339–348. Crapanzano, Vincent. Eickelman, Dale F. Moroccan Islam: Traditions and Society in a Pilgrimage Center. "Maqua (Therapeutic Burn) as an Indicator of Underlying Disease." Health Science project by Kate, Will, Alex, Andrea. Maloney, Clarence, ed. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. In short, the ethnomedical treatments for infertility alone in one Middle Eastern country are amazingly diverse and complex, suggesting the richness of popular healing beliefs and practices in this part of the world. In 1988, this author went to a small Afghan hospital in Peshawar to visit one of my Afghan students who’d developed typhoid fever. "Reading Saedi's Ahl-e Hava : Pattern and Significance in Spirit Possession Beliefs on the Southern Coasts of Iran." Myntti, Cynthia. Health and Wholeness Adib, Salim M. "From the Biomedical Model to the Islamic Alternative: A Brief Overview of Medical Practices in the Contemporary Arab World." Washington, D.C., 1978. From the early twentieth century until independence in 1960, the colony of Niger was part of French We…, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Tibet, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the Ancient near East, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the African Diaspora, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Judaism, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Japan, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Islamic Texts and Traditions, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Indigenous Australia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Greece and Rome, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Christianity, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in China, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Āyurveda and South Asia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Africa, Healing and Medicine: Alternative Medicine in the New Age, Healing and the Arts in Afro-Caribbean Cultures, Health and Disease: I. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1978. The religion that God set forth for Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and muḤammad proclaimed by the latter in Arabia in the 7th century, which enjoys the…, veil The earliest evidence for veiling is an Assyrian legal text dating from the thirteenth century bce, requiring women of clearly defined social st…, Niger Philadelphia, 1996. Philadelphia, 1994a. And how far gone is the issue of obesity across Middle Eastern countries? The zār is a women's spirit possession cult, found primarily in Egypt, Sudan, and the Arab Gulf or the regions closest to East Africa, where the zār cult probably originated. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. Pilgrimages to saints' tombs allow women to reaffirm, if only temporarily, control over their lives and their personal well-being through actions that are autonomous from men. Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). This article reviews Web sites that discuss the culture of the Middle East and provide access to patient education … Health care professionals, however, are still fairly unfamiliar with the unique cultural char-acteristics of Middle Easterners when they come for health care and are often apt to viewthem as "difficult" patients. The Middle East is the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all monotheistic religions that grew from the same tradition. According to DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders), professionals diagn… I was wearing […] Furthermore, such research is timely, given calls for an "Islamic alternative" to the hegemony of postcolonial Western biomedicine in the region. In Egypt, for example, a class of spiritist healers known as munaggimīn, who may be either male or female, specialize in diagnostic clairvoyance and the treatment of angered spirits. Reviews of Books About Ancient Cultures. Boddy, Janice. Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Health care in the Middle East. Born in the heart of Persia over 3,000 years ago, Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. Berkeley, Calif., 1984. HEALTH CARE BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS OF MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURAL GROUPS . For example, some Latino/Hispanic families believe in folk illnesses such as empacho (gastrointestinal discomfort), susto (a form of panic attack), or mal de ojo (evil eye). Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt. Social Science and Medicine 26 (1988): 651–657. The Ḥamadsha: A Study of Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry. Even though women's ziyārāt often require money from husbands and, in most cases, permission to travel by husbands or other family members, the pilgrimage typically remains an exclusively female activity, with shrines often serving as protected "female turf" (Betteridge, 1983). Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. In the 17th century, traditional Vietnamese and Chinese practitioners began identifying their medicine as Dong Y to distinguish their medicine from the Western colonial medicine. Dietary law: Rules And Customs In World Religions; Health and Disease. Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. The most widespread religion in the Middle East is Islam. Healing, both new and old, is clearly a rich area for future scholarship, as suggested by the brief examples provided in this essay. Although women's zār cults have been suppressed in some Middle Eastern societies by conservative religious forces, the zār is experiencing a revival in parts of the Arab Gulf, particularly among socially isolated tribal communities (Doumato, 2000). "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination. Prophetic and Ṣūfī healing traditions continue to flourish in many parts of the Middle East, particularly in the countries of North Africa. It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Mental health conditions in the Middle East. The procedure is painful, burning the skin and leaving a permanent scar. Middle Eastern citizens may adorn their most prized possessions (e.g., homes, automobiles) with the hand of Fatima to ward off the deleterious effects of envy. For women in the Middle East, healing as well as the solution of other difficult life problems is a primary impetus for ziyārāt to saints' shrines. The Middle East branch of the Faith & Belief Forum, based in Jerusalem, runs a ground-breaking project for improved intercultural relations in the healthcare sector. Given the incredible diversity of the region, the Middle East is home to a rich armamentarium of popular healing practices delivered by multiple types of healers. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. Orientation 127–138. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. . El-Hamamsy, Laila. Historically prophetic me… In many cases, pilgrimages and healing rituals are undertaken during the exact hour of the Friday communal noon prayer—the most important one in the Islamic weekly cycle of thirty-five prayers. First, children—and particularly more highly valued male children—are believed to be one of the main targets of the evil eye, with their sickness, injury, and even death constituting possible outcomes. Materials and Methods The aim of this research was to identify and summarize the research conducted to date on the topic of spirituality and health within a Middle Eastern … Culture Name Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). Secondly, unlike health care institutions in Europe at the time, the establishment of different hospital wards separated patients suffering from mental disease, contagious, non-contagious diseases, as well as a surgical department. Encyclopedia.com. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. between Muslim/Middle Eastern patients and medical providers. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANY TRIBES. Getting God's Ear: Women, Islam, and Healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. Yet despite official Islamic opposition, popular healing practices continue unabated, attesting to their power and importance in the minds of ordinary Muslims. "Perceiving Systems: Cold or Spirits? Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. A review of the Middle Eastern literature would also highlight any similarities or differences from research conducted with Western populations. Madison, Wis., 1992. Instructions. New York, 2003. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. 585–598. Tapper, Nancy. . However, the date of retrieval is often important. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori, eds. In the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report issued in 2000, the UAE ranked 27 in the world for its performance. Religion; Menu. 31–46. In Mormons and Muslims, edited by Spencer J. Palmer, pp. Health beliefs can have a profound impact on the clinical care of Asian patients in the United States, affecting the accuracy of health histories and compliance with treatment recommendations from Western providers. Health beliefs and views of death predate European immigration and vary by tribe. Furthermore infertile women are considered to be dangerous to fertile women, especially those who are pregnant, who have demonstrated their reproductive success repeatedly, or who have finally achieved a coveted pregnancy through technological means such as in vitro fertilization. Today, the terms Eastern medicine and Asian medicine are more commonly used in this country, and perhaps they are the better terms. Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. The English word health literally means wholeness and…, Islamic medicine Medicine played a prominent role in science and culture in the pre-modern Middle East. Whereas biomedicine is viewed for the most part as being ḥalāl, or compatible with Islamic doctrine, many alternative healing practices are considered ḥaram by religiously literate Muslims and conservative Islamists (so-called fundamentalists), who see these practices as being "against God," "against the religion," or "like believing in something besides God." "Hegemony and Healing in Rural North Yemen." Health Care Providers' Handbook on Muslim Patients is a 22-page document prepared by Queensland Health in Australia. Social Science and Medicine 58 (2004): 697–702. Middle East culture and beliefs to pray several times a day, including while at work. Betteridge, Anne H. "Specialists in Miraculous Action: Some Shrines in Shiraz." 3d ed. It is the most important cultural factor that shapes people’s attitudes and ideologies. Poems Inspired By Middle Eastern History & Culture. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Folk Medicine in Modern Egypt: Being Relevant Parts of the "Tibb al-Rukka" or Old Wives' Medicine. Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981): 219–235. Biegman, Nicolaas H. Egypt: Moulids, Saints, Sufis. Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan. Although it is important to emphasize the rich diversity of popular healing practices in the Middle East, a number of main types of healing practices stand out as particularly relevant and representative of the region. Oh, and a map of the area is essential, too. Indeed zār has been described by some scholars as a proto-feminist challenge to women's objectification and subordination (Boddy, 1989), a way to challenge authority and compensate for exclusion from formal religion in the Muslim world (Doumato, 2000). Although some contemporary Islamists are calling for a return to prophetic-Islamic medicine—with its promotion of dietary and lifestyle changes as well as faith healing through prayer, writing of religious amulets, laying on of hands, and recitation of holy verses from the Qurʾān (Adib, 2004)—it is important to remember that these are among the very practices that have been employed for centuries in popular healing rituals throughout the region. The Daya of Egypt: Survival in a Modernizing Society. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the … •During illness or crisis, Middle Eastern rely heavily on their “in-group” instead of trying to cope more individually as many Americans would. Well-equipped and well-staffed for a relatively small population, there are around 70 hospitals and 150 clinics, making up a competent health care infrastructure. The United Arab Emirates’ health care system has a good ratio of doctors (2.5 per 1000 population) and is financed by a healthy $1600 per capitaper year. . Boulder, Colo., 1993. 4. Inhorn, Marcia C. "Sexuality, Masculinity, and Infertility in Egypt: Potent Troubles in the Marital and Medical Encounters." 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