They did this 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. Recovery between sets should be 2-3 minutes. “Smith and Mujika are two of the best minds in triathlon,” said INSEP sport scientist Yann Le Meur, who is serving as the chairman of the topic at the Science & Triathlon Conference. In cycling, the strength training group saw a 7% improvement in performance compared to the non-strength training group. When we talk about explosive training, it’s really the intended velocity rather than the actual velocity that seems to determine the training response. You can improve your muscle strength through either increased muscle size or improved neuromuscular function. Strength training can both improve performance and prevent injuries for triathletes. If you are a long-time listener and appreciate the value the podcast brings, please consider taking a couple of minutes for leaving a rating and review on iTunes/Apple Podcasts, or wherever else you can think of leaving a rating and review. Glad you liked it! Research on strength training for triathletes and other endurance athletes has picked up steam the last 10-15 years. Glad you enjoyed it Kara! This can be the difference between amazing running gains and frustrating series of injuries.". Vikmoen 2017 - Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well‐trained female athletes. Thanks for sharing. So if core training prevents injuries, it seems clear that it indirectly supports improved performance, although the link is not causal. However, experience and clinical research supports the use of preventive strengthening exercises in … Bent Ronnestad and Inigo Mujika confirmed that running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training. Prioritise free weights over machines when possible to get a more functional workout. Balsalobre-Fernández 2016 - Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials, They included only 5 studies that met the strict inclusion criteria (high-level runners, etc.). With all this background information out of the way, what are some practical recommendations for triathlon core training? If you just lift the same weights and same reps throughout the phase, you might improve the first 2-3 weeks, but then you'll stagnate. " In well-trained and elite cyclists, there are very few studies showing positive effects on cycling economy from strength training. Your 1RM represents the theoretical maximum weight you could lift just once. (2) 4.5 average rating Triathlon Specific Strength Exercises Always remember: strength training is to improve your triathlon performance, not your Insta hits! Incorporate strength training into your off-season triathlon training program and you will be race faster, recover from workouts more quickly, and have less down-time due to injury. Don't make this a make-or-break thing, though. You don’t need to add more training. 4. This will allow you to stay explosive and keep lifting fast (which is critical!) That Triathlon Show exists to educate the listener, so we don't waste time on news, storytelling or fluff, but get right into discussing how to become a better triathlete or endurance athlete - every single Monday and Thursday. Your site is without doubt the best. Do the bulk of your strength training (when you do two sessions per week with high weights low reps) in periods where your endurance training volume and intensity is lower than normal. It’s difficult to answer what the “best” strength training for you is, not knowing your background, ability, etc. But the point is, with plyometric, you need to be very careful, and very particular with your progression. Thank you so much for all your hard work. Key takeaways from Cycling Science by Stephen Cheung and Mike Zabala. Six reps or lower, which as you know by now is what you should be doing, is in the central neural adaptation zone for strength training. They found that maximal force training led to greater improvements than other intensities. First, if you do it right, you'll lift heavy, and the number of reps will be low. Lifting weights used to be a hotly debated topic in endurance sports, but the pendulum has swung. To gain mass, you'd need to do more reps (with lighter weights), which is something body-builders and others in the strength and conditioning world have known for decades. I want to point out that there is some evidence that doing strenght training before endurance training is actually more beneficial. Then you might be better off, from a triathlon perspective, just swimming, biking and running, rather than substituting one of those precious workouts for a session in the gym. What's not to like? " With explosive strength training, if you can get your intended velocity high, that still counts (by the body and its adaptations) as explosive, even if the actual velocity isn’t high (because you loaded the bar with a ton of weights). The other part is the velocity of your movement – cadence (steps per minute and strokes per minute). This is part of what produces power when swimming, biking, and running. hamstring-focused vs. quad-focused), lower and upper body (with a priority on lower body), and stable vs. single-leg, more functionally demanding exercises. Blood Flow Restricted Training with Richard Ferguson, PhD | EP#270. By lifting weights, you will see reduced delayed fatigue in extended endurance exercise and racing. 2. The login page will open in a new tab. My understanding (from my rugby days) is that the load should be around 40-50%1RM for Power development. Rua Professor Queiroz Veloso 80, 1600-658 Lisbon, Portugal. 1. If you are going to do plyometrics, you could do it from the start of the program, or even add them in in the second cycle (weeks 7-12 of this phase). Adding just a little bit of weight each week. But let's just cover the individual disciplines of running, cycling and swimming first, so you can grasp the differences that exist between them. The mobility part is also important to get access to your full range-of-motion in the lifts for both better performance in the lifts, and therefore better return on the time you spend in the gym. Make one of your weekly sessions a maximum strength session. About 90% of VO2max or higher. Congratulations if you made it all the way to the end of this post. In fact- so much so, you would be foolish not to! You can reduce the weights slightly. With all the triathlon training you do, it is unlikely that you'd get this surplus of energy without very consciously trying to. You know that swim-specific strength training doesn't have any evidence-base behind it, so you should try to find your own, anecdotal answer. Multiple studies have shown direct performance improvements from incorporating a well-designed strength training program in your triathlon training.". And don't get silly and do things that seem too risky to you. The gaps in the available research are too big for it to be possible. Core strength and stability training have been prescribed to endurance athletes for decades. We’ll start off by saying that in our opinion there is no need for a power phase in triathlon training, even a strength phase is fairly irrelevant. Many of these aspects are and should be top-of-mind especially for masters athletes. If you have any questions, post them in the comments below as well. The 3 studies that found improvements just exchanged some of the endurance training for resistance training instead, to keep the total training volume constant. For each exercise, you'll do one to two warm-up sets with very light to moderate weight, and recoveries can be short. This meta-analysis goes against most of the other collective evidence in this aspect. If, for logistical reasons, you have to do endurance and weightlifting after each other, do it! Running and cycling also get the job done. How do you put all of this together? Until I found this amazing article by John Davis, I did not know any of this. See more ideas about triathlon, triathlon strength training, strength training. – why front squats, not back squats? The bummer is, for the reasons stated above, you won’t get much of an increase in muscle size either (this, of course, depends on how much triathlon training you do). Take 60-90 seconds rest between sets. But doing squat is not much easy as it seems. Other than you or your coach having to fit it into your program in a clever way, there is none. There are indications that heavy strength training  (three sets of one to five reps heavy weight pull-downs) can improve performance, and possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. Does that seem too early to start strength, or any thoughts there? So it wouldn’t be surprising if there is a direct performance link between core strength and endurance performance, that only becomes apparent in a fatigued state. Otherwise, you won't see the results. CYCLING - RUNNING - TRIATHLON - STRENGTH TRAINING - COACHING. Large volume of endurance training in the program. The Science of Triathlon provides up to date research-based answers to these and many similar questions. The few studies that have failed to show improvement in terms of time trial performance have had weight training programs that have been shorter in duration or have used a low volume of strength training. In short, this book makes it easy to develop a triathlon-focused strength training program for both off-season and race season. With heavy weight training, they had an improvement of 3.7%. Below are the 10 commandments for successfully incorporating strength training in your triathlon training program. Going down is eccentric, and you shouldn't be doing that with any speed. You can substitute some of your endurance training for strength training.". If you go on a long bike ride, usually you may see your cadence drop towards the end of the ride. The one thing that I can say is that you can do most of the exercises I recommend (squats, deadlifts and so on) with the weights you do have, and if you do that consistently, then it’s absolutely better than doing no strength training. Your call. As I am planning now, I would wrap up the maximum/explosive phase in week 4 of “base 1” then move to maintenance through the season. You need to test each exercise separately. So you can't afford to do junk miles, or any sort of junk training. You need to find a balance. For many triathletes, the topic of strength training has been neglected because of the strong emphasis in training for the swimming, biking, and running aspects of triathlons. They concluded that strength training can help prevent neuromuscular fatigue which causes the reduction in cadence. In addition to physiological markers of performance, multiple studies have shown direct performance improvements from incorporating a well-designed strength training program in your triathlon training. " Do periodise your strength training so it progresses from an adaptation phase, through a progressive build phase where you increase the demands at an appropriate rate, into a maintenance phase during your race season. by Dr. John Mullen at Swimming Science. I am an avid listener to your podcast and just wanted to revisit all the advice and evidence about weight training I knew you had put together. Millet 2002 - Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO(2) kinetics, 2. 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. It's likely you'll skip a core training routine if you have to get dressed just for that. As I mentioned earlier the longer the duration of the event, the more important economy becomes. Be sure to read the entire article and use his program and progression if you plan to include plyometrics as part of your strength training. This guide https://www.aqfsports.com/blogs/news/how-to-squat-properly-squat-tips-and-benefits also tells the proper way of doing squat. Don't ramp up the endurance training volume or intensity and also start to include heavy strength training alongside it. Ten to twenty minutes three to seven times per week is recommended. These health effects can be found on hormonal levels, in bone health, body composition and metabolism, and beyond. your background in weightlifting and in triathlon and endurance sports), to give you an idea, the list below contains some of my favourite strength training exercises for triathletes. Dave Cripps holds a Masters degree in sport science and is an accredited strength and conditioning coach in the U.K. He’s currently the Director of TriTenacious , a leading online strength and conditioning resource for triathletes, and Coalition Performance , one of the U.K.’s most successful private physical fitness training facilities. 1. Copyright 2021 Scientific Triathlon, all rights reserved. Therefore, it makes sense to do strength workouts first, endurance workouts second. This is a wonderful resource. Aspenes & Karlsen 2012, Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming. These triathletes improved their maximal strength, running economy and velocity at VO2 max; the improvement in running economy was 6-7%. To give an overview of the science that does exist, one recent systematic review of strength training in swimming is summarised below. However, only five studies have investigated the effects of strength training on swimming performance, and the number of participants in these studies is so low that it's not possible to draw any conclusions. We know this from research studies. However, this meta-analysis is from 2010 whereas Cycling Science is from this 2017. And this is the time to do static stretching if you're looking to increase your flexibility. In case you wondered, here are the plyometrics exercises I recommend: You can also do foam rolling or stretching. And it should be dynamic movements. Also, five minutes of mobility work is your best and cheapest insurance against gym injuries, and time very well-spent. For a good summary of the evidence of various types of resistance training (including things like swimming with paddles) see the article Is Resistance Training In Swimming Effective? To minimise it even further and make sure you get as much as possible out of your training, keep your endurance training volume in check, and separate your gym workouts and endurance workouts by 8 hours or more. Especially if you’re doing half or full Ironmans. These are all physiological markers of performance, and economy and lactate threshold are two of the three most important ones in triathlon. If, on the other hand, you strength train any other way (lower weights, higher reps), you target increased muscle size. The collective evidence suggests a large variety of benefits from strength training that positively impact triathlon or endurance performance, including improved physiological markers of performance. It is practice-based, from my own experience and the experience of the athletes I coach. It should also be noted that core strength’s potential impact on performance may only become apparent after an extended duration. Of course, you can and should do the core training I describe in this article just fine in your home gym. There are many molecular and hormonal pathways and hormones involved in the background that causes this phenomenon. I highly recommend you listen to episodes 81 and 45 in particular. I am a full-time triathlon coach, founder of Scientific Triathlon, and host of the top-rated podcast That Triathlon Show. This is brilliant. However, 12 weeks will give you plenty of benefits already. Clear as mud effects of weight training on swimming performance, Examples of triathlon-specific weightlifting sessions and exercises, How to plan your strength training program from start to finish, Interference of endurance training and strength training, What is the role of core training for triathletes, 10 commandments for incorporating strength training in a triathlon training program, Additional resources on strength training for triathletes, Cycling Science and Myth Busting Part 1 with Stephen Cheung | EP#74, Cycling Science and Myth Busting Part 2 with Stephen Cheung | EP#75, Triathlon Strength Training content collection page, The Triathlete's Strength Training Formula | EP#81, Maximum Overload: A Strength-based Cycling Program with Jacques Devore | EP#62, Dysfunctional movement patterns, injuries and reduced performance with James Dunne | EP#45, Strength and conditioning for triathletes with Frank Velasquez | EP#15, Building a plyometrics program for distance runners - article by John Davis, Science Triathlon Conference 2015 - Inigo Mujika Presentation, Carbohydrate intake in racing – a case for going very high with Aitor Viribay Morales (Astana Pro Team) | EP#269, Nutrition at the cycling World Tour level with Robert Gorgos (Bora-Hansgrohe nutritionist) | EP#267, Developing the future stars of triathlon with coach Joachim Willén | EP#266, Nutrition for endurance and ultra-endurance athletes with Trent Stellingwerff, PhD | EP#265, https://www.aqfsports.com/blogs/news/how-to-squat-properly-squat-tips-and-benefits. *If you don't have time to create your own strength training plan from the information in this article, don't worry, I've done it for you! You should do two sessions per week here. My 19-week triathlon-specific strength training plan is highly effective, easy to follow, and extremely affordable. Tucking 10-20 minutes of core work onto the end of a weightlifting session is a great way to get a couple of core sessions in per week at no extra cost. Endurance training before strength training. This is very interesting. If you're anything like me, you want to get the best return on the time you invest in training. 2. You will improve maximal strength and speed (of movement, that is, like running). The structure of your gym workout should be as follows: For the warm-up, start with 5 minutes or so of cardio. Note that for your explosive strength workouts you may need to reduce the %1RM of this progression to still be able to lift explosively. Blood Flow Restricted Training with Richard Ferguson, PhD | EP#270. However, they did not see any of these changes in running. “Combined, they will offer conference participants a look at real results, as well as scientific research, which offers a wholistic understanding to strength training. A properly designed strength training program is among the lowest hanging fruits for improved endurance performance.". Interference is a situation where strength training and endurance training cancel out or greatly reduce the effect of the other training modality. I have compiled a list of the resources I use over and over below. I do not want to join a gym to do my weight workout. Thank you Dave, I’m glad you found it useful! Scientific Triathlon is the website for learning smart triathlon training principles. Anecdotally, I have found that gym workouts do have a significant impact on subsequent endurance workout, that logically would impact the aerobic development. Most research studies have found that two strength training sessions per week for 8-12 weeks achieves a sufficient increase in strength to result in endurance improvements. I have also listed my own content (mostly podcast interviews). Strength Training for Triathletes is rated 4.0 out of 5 at GoodReads. Paavolainen 1999 - Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power, Saunders 2006 - Short-term plyometric training improves running economy in highly trained middle and long distance runners, Berryman 2010 - Effect of plyometric vs. dynamic weight training on the energy cost of running, Barnes 2015 - Strategies to improve running economy, Paton 2005 - Combining explosive and high-resistance training improves performance in competitive cyclists, Aagaard 2011 - Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists, Ronnestad 2011 - Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling, Ronnestad 2015 - Strength training improves performance and pedaling characteristics in elite cyclists, Millet 2002 - Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO(2) kinetics, Hausswirth 2010 - Endurance and strength training effects on physiological and muscular parameters during prolonged cycling, Docherty 2000 - A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training, Garcia-Pallares 2012 - Strategies to Optimize Concurrent Training of Strength and Aerobic Fitness for Rowing and Canoeing, Denadai 2017 - Explosive Training and Heavy Weight Training are Effective for Improving Running Economy in Endurance Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Berryman 2017 - Strength Training for Middle- and Long-Distance Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Balsalobre-Fernández 2016 - Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials, Murlasits 2018 - The physiological effects of concurrent strength and endurance training sequence: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Ronnestad 2013 - Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review, Vikmoen 2017 - Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well‐trained female athletes, Mikkola 2011 - Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners. 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