(Wundt was the originator ofthe first institute for … Edmund Husserl's Phenomenology. Edmund Husserl and His Critics, an International Bibliography (1894-1979): Preceded by a Bibliography of Husserl's Writings. [30], Following his PhD in mathematics, Husserl returned to Berlin to work as the assistant to Karl Weierstrass. Nicolai Hartmann was once thought to be at the center of phenomenology, but perhaps no longer. Husserliana: Edmund Husserl Gesammelte Werke, the ongoing critical edition of Husserl's works. Husserl criticized the logicians of his day for not focusing on the relation between subjective processes that give us objective knowledge of pure logic. The notion of objects as real is not expelled by phenomenology, but "bracketed" as a way in which we regard objects—instead of a feature that inheres in an object's essence founded in the relation between the object and the perceiver. Logic is a formal theory of judgment, that studies the formal a priori relations among judgments using meaning categories. To achieve this he uses several methods and concepts taken from his teachers. He delivered several lectures even after retirement. Scholars such as J. N. Mohanty, Claire Ortiz Hill, and Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock, among others, have argued that Husserl's so-called change from psychologism to Platonism came about independently of Frege's review. In his Spór o istnienie świata (Ger. [59] Hermann Weyl's interest in intuitionistic logic and impredicativity appears to have resulted from his reading of Husserl. Smith, D. W., and Thomasson, Amie L. Karol Wojtyla, who would later become Pope John Paul II, was influenced by Husserl. Moreover, objectivity is clearly defined in that work. In 1921 the prestige of Hartmann the Neo-Kantian, who was Professor of Philosophy at Marburg, was added to the Movement; he "publicly declared his solidarity with the actual work of die Phänomenologie." Merleau-Ponty's most clearly Husserlian work is, perhaps, "the Philosopher and His Shadow." In his first works Husserl tries to combine mathematics, psychology and philosophy with a main goal to provide a sound foundation for mathematics. It secured his reputation, influenced philosophers such as Emil Lask and Martin Heidegger, and also contributed to the development of phenomenology, structuralism, and continental philosophy. Edmund Husserl died at Freiburg on 27 April 1938, having just turned 79. At times Husserl saw his goal as one of moral "renewal". [28], Evidently as a result of his becoming familiar with the New Testament during his twenties, Husserl asked to be baptized into the Lutheran Church in 1886. Husserl believed that truth-in-itself has as ontological correlate being-in-itself, just as meaning categories have formal-ontological categories as correlates. Husserl was born in Prossnitz (Moravia) on April 8th, 1859.His parents were non-orthodox Jews; Husserl himself and his wife wouldlater convert to Protestantism. Husserl stated that logic has three strata, each further away from consciousness and psychology than those that precede it. [74] Phenomenological understanding strives to be rigorously "presuppositionless" by means of what Husserl calls "phenomenological reduction". A year later, i… He became an “extraordinarius professor” at the ‘University of Göttingen’ in 1901. Husserl pointed out that the failure of anti-psychologists to defeat psychologism was a result of being unable to distinguish between the foundational, theoretical side of logic, and the applied, practical side. [103] Heidegger, while acknowledging his debt to Husserl, followed a political position offensive and harmful to Husserl after the Nazis came to power in 1933, Husserl being of Jewish origin and Heidegger infamously being then a Nazi proponent. [83] It involves imagining an object of the kind under investigation and varying its features. [80]:35, Husserl sees ontology as a science of essences. There Husserl also attended Friedrich Paulsen's philosophy lectures. Jump to navigation Jump to search. "[73], Husserl's thought is revolutionary in several ways, most notably in the distinction between "natural" and "phenomenological" modes of understanding. This work was published first in French. The complex, troubled, and sundered philosophical relationship between Husserl and Heidegger has been widely discussed.[61][63]. [110], Emmanuel Levinas in 1929 gave a presentation at one of Husserl's last seminars in Freiburg. [31] Following academic advice, two years later in 1886 Husserl followed Carl Stumpf, a former student of Brentano, to the University of Halle, seeking to obtain his habilitation which would qualify him to teach at the university level. He credited phenomenology for having 'liberated him' from a narrow neo-Kantian thought. The impact of Brentano led Husserl to resolve to devote his life to philosophy. [84] Husserl distinguishes between formal ontology, which investigates the essence of objectivity in general,[85] and regional ontologies, which study regional essences that are shared by all entities belonging to the region. From the Ideen onward, Husserl concentrated on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. There, he studied mathematics under Leo Königsberger. 1994. Martin Heidegger, one of Husserl’s best-known students, who also served as Husserl’s personal assistant at ‘Freiburg’ from 1920 to 1923, was elected the rector of the university on April 22, 1933. Before beginning Ideen Husserl's thought had reached the stage where "each subject is 'presented' to itself, and to each all others are 'presentiated' (Vergegenwärtigung), not as parts of nature but as pure consciousness. Husserl's review of Ernst Schröder, published before Frege's landmark 1892 article, clearly distinguishes sense from reference; thus Husserl's notions of noema and object also arose independently. The next year his other son Gerhart Husserl was wounded in the war but survived. [122] Among other works, Ricœur employed phenomenology in his Freud and Philosophy (1965).[123]. ), German philosopher, the founder of Phenomenology, a method for the description and analysis of consciousness through which philosophy attempts to gain the character of a strict science. Phenomenology appears in his major work, The Acting Person (1969). Its first issue included ‘Ideen,’ a significant work by Husserl, in which he had precisely and clearly elaborated the eidetic and phenomenological reductions. Among people born in 1859, Edmund Husserl ranks 7. In October 1914 both his sons were sent to fight on the Western Front of World War I and the following year one of them, Wolfgang Husserl, was badly injured. In the autumn of 1937, Husserl had a severe fall. The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness is a translation of Edmund Husserl's Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins.The first part of the book was originally presented as a lecture course at the University of Göttingen in the winter semester of 1904–1905, while the second part is based on additional supplementary lectures that he gave … Noemata have three different levels: Consequently, in intentional activities, even non-existent objects can be constituted, and form part of the whole noema. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl, född 8 april 1859 i Proßnitz, död 27 april 1938 i Freiburg im Breisgau, var en tysk filosof, känd som den moderna filosofiska fenomenologins fader. In 1912 at Freiburg the journal Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Phänomenologische Forschung ("Yearbook for Philosophy and Phenomenological Research") was founded by Husserl and his school, and which published articles of their phenomenological movement from 1913 to 1930. These are called "universal names"; their meaning is a "concept" and refers to a series of objects (the extension of the concept). [60][61], In the war-time 1941 edition of Heidegger's primary work, Being and Time (Sein und Zeit, first published in 1927), the original dedication to Husserl was removed. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was born on April 8, 1859, in Prostějov, Margraviate of Moravia, Austrian Empire (modern-day Prostějov, Czech Republic). The personal relationship between the two men, however, became strained, due to Scheler's legal troubles, and Scheler returned to Munich. He became a co-editor of the journal ‘Logos’ in 1910. Rosado Haddock, G. E., "On Husserl’s Distinction between State of Affairs (Sachverhalt) and Situation of Affairs (Sachlage)", in C. Ortiz Hill and G. E. Rosado Haddock. [36][37] This work was well received and became the subject of a seminar given by Wilhelm Dilthey; Husserl in 1905 traveled to Berlin to visit Dilthey. It later became the basis for his 1891 book on the philosophy of mathematics, titled ‘Philosophie der Arithmetik,’ which was also considered his first significant work. You can find a copy of her "Skizze eines Lebensbildes von Edmund Husserl" in the journal, Husserl Studies 5: 110-125 (1988). Husserl’s 1931 book ‘Méditations cartésiennes’ was based on the four lectures he had delivered on February 23 and 25, 1929, in the ‘Amphithéatre Descartes’ at the ‘Sorbonne.’ The book was divided into five "meditations" and introduced the principal features of the philosopher's mature transcendental phenomenology, which included, (not exhaustively) the epoché, static and genetic phenomenology, transcendental reduction, eidetic phenomenology, and eidetic reduction. Husserl responds by saying that truth itself, as well as logical laws, always remain valid regardless of psychological "evidence" that they are true. He also attended the philosophy lectures of Friedrich Paulsen. In 1891 he published his Philosophie der Arithmetik. Hans Blumenberg received his habilitation in 1950, with a dissertation on 'Ontological distance', an inquiry into the crisis of Husserl's phenomenology. The major dividing line in Husserl's thought is the turn to transcendental idealism. While perhaps not a phenomenologist himself, he introduced the philosophy to Iberia and Latin America.[125]. Stanisław Leśniewski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz were inspired by Husserl's formal analysis of language. Their three children, Elizabeth, Gerhart, and Wolfgang, were born in 1892, 1893, and 1894, respectively. Edmund husserl Biography January 18, 2021 Edmund Husserl (Prossnitz, today Prostejov, now Czech Republic, 1859-Freiburg, Germany, 1938) German philosopher and logician.Born into a wealthy Jewish family, he studied physics, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy at the universities of Leipzig, Berlin, and Vienna. Modern philosophy discarded the framework of thought of medieval philosophy which was built upon Christian faith. [81] Regions correspond to the highest genera of concrete entities: material nature, personal consciousness and interpersonal spirit. Edmund Husserl (Prostějov, Morvaország, akkori Habsburg Birodalom, mai Csehország, 1859. április 8. Remy C. Kwant, "Merleau-Ponty's Criticism of Husserl's Eidetic Reduction" in Joseph J. Kochelmans. She, however, took back the allegation later. According to Frege the reference of a sentence is a truth value; for Husserl it is a "state of affairs." Derrida continued to make reference to Husserl in works such as Of Grammatology. For psychologists, the acts of judging, reasoning, deriving, and so on, are all psychological processes. Moreover, the distinction between the subjective mental act, namely the content of a concept, and the (external) object, was developed independently by Brentano and his school, and may have surfaced as early as Brentano's 1870s lectures on logic. Carr, David (1970) "Translator's Introduction" xv–xliii, at xxx–xxxi, xxxiv–xxxv, xxxvii–xxxviii (historicism), xxxvi–xxxvii (as given), to Husserl, Ricœur, Paul (1949) "Husserl et le sens de l'histoire", as translated in his. Husserl became increasingly critical of Heidegger's work, especially in 1929, and included pointed criticism of Heidegger in lectures he gave during 1931. [109] Although Scheler later criticised Husserl's idealistic logical approach and proposed instead a "phenomenology of love", he states that he remained "deeply indebted" to Husserl throughout his work. Husserl, after his platonist turn, pointed out that the failure of anti-psychologists to defeat psychologism has to do with the fact that they were unable to distinguish between the th… After a short stint in the military, he started focusing on philosophy. Pure logic does not deal at all with "thoughts" or "judgings" as mental episodes but about a priori laws and conditions for any theory and any judgments whatsoever, conceived as propositions in themselves. Its fundamental methodological principle was what Husserl called the phenomenological reduction. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (/ˈhʊsɜːrl/ HUUSS-url,[18][19] also US: /ˈhuːsɜːrl, ˈhʊsərəl/ HOO-surl, HUUSS-ər-əl;[20][21] German: [ˈʔɛtmʊnt ˈhʊsɐl];[22] 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938[23]) was a German[24][25] philosopher who established the school of phenomenology. Psychologism in logic stipulated that logic itself was not an independent discipline, but a branch of psychology. According to Husserl, this view of logic and mathematics accounted for the objectivity of a series of mathematical developments of his time, such as n-dimensional manifolds (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean), Hermann Grassmann's theory of extensions, William Rowan Hamilton's Hamiltonians, Sophus Lie's theory of transformation groups, and Cantor's set theory. Moreover, Husserl did not maintain that predicates of sentences designate concepts. [51][52] Husserl describes here the cultural crisis gripping Europe, then approaches a philosophy of history, discussing Galileo, Descartes, several British philosophers, and Kant. [29], Later Husserl lectured at Prague in 1935 and Vienna in 1936, which resulted in a very differently styled work that, while innovative, is no less problematic: Die Krisis (Belgrade 1936). Volume One contains seasoned reflections on "pure logic" in which he carefully refutes "psychologism". -------- and Rosado Haddock, G. E., 2000. Knowledge of essences would only be possible by "bracketing" all assumptions about the existence of an external world. Among other things, he heardWilhelm Wundt's lectures on philosophy. Before him are Arthur Conan Doyle, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Pierre Curie, Henri Bergson, Knut Hamsun, and L. L. Zamenhof. Roger Scruton, despite some disagreements with Husserl, drew upon his work in Sexual Desire (1986). Thanks to "eidetic reduction" (or "essential intuition"), we are able to grasp the possibility, impossibility, necessity and contingency among concepts and among formal categories. Also that year he wrote on Husserl's Ideen (1913) a long review published by a French journal. Edmund Husserl: Formal Ontology and Transcendental Logic. It is important to distinguish between the act of judging and the judgment itself, the act of counting and the number itself, and so on. He was at first impressed with Heidegger and began a book on him, but broke off the project when Heidegger became involved with the Nazis. After obtaining his PhD in mathematics, Husserl began analyzing the foundations of mathematics from a psychological point of view. He was mainly interested in topics such as the philosophy of mathematics, ontology, epistemology, and intersubjectivity. His own mother Julia died. [53][54] A longer section follows on the "lifeworld" [Lebenswelt], one not observed by the objective logic of science, but a world seen in our subjective experience. At Göttingen in 1913 Adolf Reinach (1884–1917) "was now Husserl's right hand. Husserl's discussion of Galileo is famous. The philosophy lectures of Wilhelm Wundt at ‘Leipzig’ inspired him. Hence Frege recognized, as early as 1891, that Husserl distinguished between sense and reference. There are names which have no meaning, but have the role of designating an object: "Aristotle", "Socrates", and so on. Examples of formal words are "a", "the", "more than", "over", "under", "two", "group", and so on. From within this sphere, which Husserl enacts in order to show the impossibility of solipsism, the transcendental ego finds itself always already paired with the lived body of another ego, another monad. With Gabrielle Peiffer, Levinas translated into French Husserl's Méditations cartésiennes (1931). [62] The dedication can still be found in a footnote on page 38, thanking Husserl for his guidance and generosity. While often simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena, by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena. Although there was a Jewish technical school in the town, Edmund's father, a clothing merchant, had the means and the inclination to send the boy away to Vienna at the age of 10 to begin his German classical education in the Realgymnasium of the capital. The Acting Person combines phenomenological work with Thomistic ethics. [37] Likewise, in his criticism of Frege in the Philosophy of Arithmetic, Husserl remarks on the distinction between the content and the extension of a concept. Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in … Regional ontology involves applying this method to the essences corresponding to the highest genera.[89]. Some of his notable ideas, besides phenomenology, were transcendental subjectivism, phenomenological reduction, eidetic reduction, epoché, formal ontology, mereology, retention (and protention), and “Nachgewahren.” He served as a “Privatdozent” at ‘Halle’ and as a professor at the universities of ‘Göttingen’ and ‘Freiburg.’ He had a fruitful stint following his retirement. [124], José Ortega y Gasset visited Husserl at Freiburg in 1934. In the former, sense-perception in correspondence with the material realm constitutes the known reality, and understanding is premised on the accuracy of the perception and the objective knowability of what is called the "real world". On Husserl's phenomenological idealism see. Husserl was incorrectly rumoured to have been denied the use of the library at Freiburg as a result of the anti-Jewish legislation of April 1933. [82][83] Ontology as a science of essences is not interested in actual facts, but in the essences themselves, whether they have instances or not. Mathematics, on the other hand, is formal ontology; it studies all the possible forms of being (of objects). Biography of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) German philosopher, born at Prossnitz in 1859 and died in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1938. Accordingly, they employed phenomenology in the development of categorial grammar. Wolfgang died fighting on the battlefield of Verdun on March 8, 1916. Since "truth-in-itself" has "being-in-itself" as ontological correlate, and since psychologists reduce truth (and hence logic) to empirical psychology, the inevitable consequence is scepticism. Psychologists have also not been successful in showing how from induction or psychological processes we can justify the absolute certainty of logical principles, such as the principles of identity and non-contradiction. He was the second child (and the second son) of a Jewish milliner named Adolf. He/She is the founder of the school of thought called "phenomenology". According to psychologism, logic would not be an autonomous discipline, but a branch of psychology, either proposing a prescriptive and practical "art" of correct judgement (as Brentano and some of his more orthodox students did)[95] or a description of the factual processes of human thought. Herbert Spiegelberg writes, "While outward religious practice never entered his life any more than it did that of most academic scholars of the time, his mind remained open for the religious phenomenon as for any other genuine experience." Roman Ingarden, an early student of Husserl at Freiburg, corresponded with Husserl into the mid-1930s. "[107], Edith Stein was Husserl's student at Göttingen and Freiburg while she wrote her doctoral thesis The Empathy Problem as it Developed Historically and Considered Phenomenologically (1916). Husserl argues that logic is theoretical, i.e., that logic itself proposes a priori laws which are themselves the basis of the normative side of logic. She later adapted her phenomenology to the modern school of modern Thomism.[108]. Former philosophy student Thomas Masaryk, who later became the first president of Czechoslovakia, was his mentor. [76] In Husserl's work, consciousness of any given thing calls for discerning its meaning as an "intentional object". 2. However, he was never accepted as a practitioner of true logic by Frege and others. He was raised in Prostějov, where he studied at the secular elementary school. Husserl also identifies a series of "formal words" which are necessary to form sentences and have no sensible correlates. "[105] He was an original editor of Husserl's new journal, Jahrbuch; one of his works (giving a phenomenological analysis of the law of obligations) appeared in its first issue. The ban was, however, lifted the following week, amidst massive public opposition. In it, Husserl for the first time attempts a historical overview of the development of Western philosophy and science, emphasizing the challenges presented by their increasingly (one-sidedly) empirical and naturalistic orientation. The reason why we do not deal with sensible objects in mathematics is because of another faculty of understanding called "categorial abstraction." For Husserl this is not the case: mathematics (with the exception of geometry) is the ontological correlate of logic, and while both fields are related, neither one is strictly reducible to the other. From Weierstrass he derives the idea that we generate the concept of number by counting a certain collection of objects. On 4 May 1933, Professor Edmund Husserl addressed the recent regime change in Germany and its consequences: The future alone will judge which was the true Germany in 1933, and who were the true Germans—those who subscribe to the more or less materialistic-mythical racial prejudices of the day, or those Germans pure in heart and mind, heirs to the great Germans of the past whose tradition they revere and perpetuate. One argument against Husserl's description works this way: instead of infinity and the Deity being the ego's gateway to the Other, as in Descartes, Husserl's ego in the Cartesian Meditations itself becomes transcendent. In July 1933, Husserl resigned from the ‘Deutsche Akademie.’ By then, Heidegger, whose work was championed by Husserl since 1917, had severed all ties with the latter and communicated only through intermediaries. [43][44] In 1913 Karl Jaspers visited Husserl at Göttingen. Dedicated to Brentano, the book was based much on Husserl’s 1887 “habilitationsschrift” ‘Über den Begriff der Zahl’ (‘On the Concept of Number’). Scheler, who was at Göttingen when Husserl taught there, was one of the original few editors of the journal Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Phänomenologische Forschung (1913). He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, while at the same time he elaborated … In 1887, he became a “Privatdozent” at the ‘University of Halle.’ In 1891, he published ‘Philosophy of Arithmetic,’ his first book. Gottlob Frege criticized the psychologism of the book. Two years later in Italy he paid a visit to Franz Brentano his inspiring old teacher and to Constantin Carathéodory the mathematician. Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen which, drawing on his prior studies in mathematics and philosophy, proposed a psychological context as the basis of mathematics. Eugen Fink was a close associate of Husserl during the 1920s and 1930s. After him are John Dewey, Svante Arrhenius, Georges Seurat, Alfred Dreyfus, Yuan Shikai, and Billy the Kid. He attended lectures on philosophy and philosophical psychology by Franz Brentano at the ‘University of Vienna’ in 1884. has an object that it is about: the believed, the wanted. For Husserl a sentence has a proposition or judgment as its meaning, and refers to a state of affairs which has a situation of affairs as a reference base. In 1887, he wrote ‘Über den Begriff der Zahl’ (‘On the Concept of Number’) under the supervision of Stumpf. He was the second child (and the second son) of a Jewish milliner named Adolf. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (8/4/1859 – 27/4/1938) là một nhà triết học Đức, đã thiết lập nên trường phái hiện tượng học. In the years 1876–78 Husserl studiedastronomy in Leipzig, where he also attended courses of lectures inmathematics, physics and philosophy. Meaning categories relate judgments; they include forms of conjunction, disjunction, forms of plural, among others. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (Dr. phil. [112], Jean-Paul Sartre was also largely influenced by Husserl, although he later came to disagree with key points in his analyses. Just prior to this a major work of his, Logische Untersuchungen (Halle, 1900–1901), was published. Husserl tries new methods of bringing his readers to understand the importance of phenomenology to scientific inquiry (and specifically to psychology) and what it means to "bracket" the natural attitude. (eds. Edmund Husserl Collected Works, English translation of Husserl's works. He studied physics, mathematics, and astronomy at the ‘University of Leipzig’ from 1876 to 1878. ^ "Search - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy". He identified several different kinds of names. [121], Paul Ricœur has translated many works of Husserl into French and has also written many of his own studies of the philosopher. Although a steadfast proponent of a radical and rational autonomy in all things, Husserl could also speak "about his vocation and even about his mission under God's will to find new ways for philosophy and science," observes Spiegelberg. Carr, David (1970) "Translator's Introduction" xv–xlii, at xxv, to Edmund Husserl. Lihat panduan penerjemahan Wikipedia. It remains, however, alone (unconnected). He grew up with two brothers and a sister. Among people deceased in 1938, Edmund Husserl ranks 2. [58] However, among other disabilities Husserl was unable to publish his works in Nazi Germany [see above footnote to Die Krisis (1936)]. As phenomenology further evolves, it leads (when viewed from another vantage point in Husserl's 'labyrinth') to "transcendental subjectivity". Husserl's thought profoundly influenced 20th-century philosophy, and he remains a notable figure in contemporary philosophy and beyond. Eugen Fink, his research assistant, delivered his eulogy. According to Heidegger, his relationship with Husserl had strained when the latter had publicly "settled accounts" with him and Max Scheler during the early 1930s. From 1939 he collaborated with Eugen Fink at the Husserl-Archives in Leuven. Yet already Husserl had felt the desire to pursue philosophy. Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938), philosopher, is known as the "father" of phenomenology, a major philosophical movement in the twentieth century. ), Joseph J. Kockelmans, "Biographical Note" per Edmund Husserl, at 17–20, in his edited, Kockelmans, "Biographical Note" per Edmund Husserl, 17–20, at 17–18, in his edited, Cf., "Illustrative extracts from Frege's Review of Husserl's, Jean-Paul Sartre, "La Transcendance de L'Ego. That work two sensible objects in a footnote on page 38, thanking Husserl for his Jewish background having him! Their phenomenological movement, objectivity is clearly defined in that work I … Husserliana Materialien. 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